Yarm, or Yaurm in 1843
Yarm is a parish and market-town in the western division of the liberty of Langbaurgh, in the North Riding of Yorkshire : the town occupies a low peninsula nearly surrounded by the river Tees, about 237 miles from London, and 44 miles north-north-west from York.
The town appears to have fallen in importance with the rise of Stockton, which is about 4 miles to the north-east, on the opposite side of the river, and partly, perhaps, in consequence of the destructive floods to which its low situation subjects it. In 1753, and again in 1822, the water covered the town to the depth of 7 feet, and in 1771 it rose still higher, being as much as 20 feet in some parts.
The principal street contains some good houses. The Tees is here crossed by a bridge of five arches, built in 1400 by Walter Skirlaw, bishop of Durham, and since much improved; and in 1805 an elegant iron bridge, of one arch, 180 feet span, was erected ; but, owing to some defect in the foundation, it fell early in the following year, and it has not been replaced.
The living is a perpetual curacy, in the archdeaconry of Cleveland and diocese of York, with a gross income of £206. The church, dedicated to St. Mary Magdalen, stands to the west of the town, and was rebuilt in 1730. The Society of Friends, Independents, Primitive and Wesleyan Methodists, and Roman Catholics have their respective places of worship ; and among the schools are a free grammar-school founded by Thomas Conyers, in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, with an increased endowment by the will of William Chaloner, in 1799, and a large national school, erected by subscription in 1816.
The trade of the town, which receives some benefit from a branch of the Stockton and Darlington Railway, consists principally in the exportation of agricultural produce, but the corn trade, though formerly considerable, has declined. The town also derives some benefit from the salmon fishery in the Tees. The weekly market is on Thursday, and there are fairs on the Thursday before April 5, Ascension-day, the 2nd of August, and the 19th and 20th of October, that on the last-mentioned day being a great cheese-fair. A court for the recovery of small debts is held here twice in every year. The population of the parish was 1,636 in 1831, and 1,511 in 1841.