Penistone in 1843
Penistone is a small market-town on the right bank of the Don, in the West Riding, wapentake of Staincross, 177 miles from London, on the road from Sheffield to Huddersfield, 13 miles from each place. It is situated on the edge of the dreary moors which form the borders of Yorkshire and Lancashire. The climate is cold, and the harvest is sometimes not gathered in before November. The parish comprises 21,580 acres, and consists of the chapelry of Denby, and the townships of Gunthwaite, Hunshelf, Ingbirchworth, Langsett, Oxspring. Penistone, and Thurlestone. Population of the parish, 5,042 in 1821, 5,201 in 1831, and 5,907 in 1841. The chapelry of Denby consists of the townships of Denby, Gunthwaite, and Ingbirchworth : the living is a perpetual curacy, net value £98.
The linen manufacture is carried on in the town of Penistone and in most of the hamlets in the parish. The town consists of four streets crossing each other at right angles. There is a market every Thursday, chiefly for sheep and cattle. The church presents nothing worthy of note. The living is a vicarage, in the diocese of Ripon, net value £147. The Society of Friends, the Independents, and Wesleyan Methodists have places of worship : in Mr. Baines's work it is stated that the dissenters have five places of worship in the parish. The grammar-school, founded in 1604 and endowed with £120, is free to all male children in the parish. The national school is partly supported by an endowment. In 1843 there were in the parish two church Sunday-schools, attended by 143 scholars, and eight belonging to dissenters, with 727 scholars ; besides twelve daily schools, attended by 379 scholars. The population of the township was 645 in 1821, 703 in 1831, and 738 in 1841. The population of Thurlstone in 1841 was 1,872. The Sheffield and Manchester Railway passes through this township, and the Return includes 225 persons who were employed on its construction. Dr. Sanderson, the blind mathematician, was a native of the parish.