Rothwell in 1839
Rothwell, popularly Rowell, is in the hundred of Rothwell, 78 miles from London. The area of the parish is 4,430 acres, with a population, in 1831, of 2,002, including the chapelry of Orton and the hamlet of Thorpe Underwood ; or, excluding these, 3,130 acres and 1,875 inhabitants. The town is situated on the southern slope ofa hill : the ruin of the market-house, begun by Sir Thomas Tresham, A.D. 1577, but never finished, is a remarkable object; it consists of a square area surrounded by large pointed arches, designed for the market, and a suite of rooms with wide square-headed windows over ; the whole is ornamented with Doric pilasters, shields with arms, &c. The church has an embattled tower and a fine doorway of early English character. There is a large yearly fair for live-stock, pedlery, and leather. A few persons are engaged in weaving plush.
The living is a vicarage, united with the chapelry of .Orton, of the clear yearly value of £145. There were, in 1833, three infant or dame schools, with 76 children ; seven day-schools (one endowed, another a nationa1-school, and two others supported by charity), with 238 children ; and three Sunday-schools, with 431 children.